Copper tungsten (CuW, WCu) has been recognized as a highly conductive and erasion resistant composite material that is extensively used as copper tungsten electrodes in EDM machining and resistance welding applications, electrical contacts in high voltage applications, and heat sinks and other electronic packaging materials in thermal applications.
The most common tungsten/copper ratios are WCu 70/30, WCu 75/25, and WCu 80/20. Other common compositions include tungsten/copper 50/50, 60/40, and 90/10. The range of available compositions is from Cu 50 wt.% to Cu 90 wt.%. Our tungsten copper product range includes copper tungsten rod, foil, sheet, plate, tube, tungsten copper rod, and machined parts. We are capable of producing copper tungsten plates and sheets with a range of thickness from 2 inches to less than 0.004 inches. We also offer copper tungsten rods with diameters ranging from 0.029″ to 5.0” or more. As an ISO-certified tungsten manufacturer, CHEMETAL USA is capable of offering various types of tungsten copper products that all meet a consistently high standard. We have the capacity to provide a fast lead time and handle large-volume contracts.
|Copper Tungsten Rod|
|Diameter||0.029″ (0.75mm) – 5″ (127 mm)|
|Length||0.15″ (3.81mm) – 40″ (1000mm)|
|Copper Tungsten Plate|
|Thickness||0.120”(3 mm) to 2”(50 mm)|
|Copper Tungsten Sheet|
|Thickness||0.002”(0.0508 mm) to 0.120”(3 mm)|
Copper Tungsten Mechanical and Physical Properties
|Composition||Density||Electrical Conductivity||CTE||Thermal Conductivity||Hardness||Specific Heat|
|g/cm³||IACS % Min.||10-6 K-1||W/m · K-1||HRB|
|J/g · K|
Copper Tungsten Machining
As an ISO certified tungsten copper supplier and manufacturer with advanced machining facilities, CHEMETAL USA is capable of offering various types of copper tungsten products that all meet a consistently high standard. With years of experience in handling tungsten copper materials, our highly-trained technicians are skilled in offering the following machining services for a variety of copper tungsten materials.
- EDM Machining
Copper Tungsten Properties
- Low thermal expansion
- High thermal and electrical conductivity
- High arc resistance
- Low consumption
During manufacturing of copper tungsten alloy, high purity tungsten is pressed, sintered and then infiltrated by the oxygen-free copper after the consolidating steps. The consolidated tungsten copper alloy presents a homogeneous microstructure and low level of porosity. The combination of copper’s conductivity with tungsten’s high density, hardness, and high melting point produces a composite with many preeminent properties of both elements. Copper-infiltrated tungsten boasts such properties as high resistance to high-temperature and arc-erosion, excellent thermal and electrical conductivity and a low CTE (coefficient of thermal).
The physical and mechanical properties and melting point of tungsten copper material will be positively or oppositely affected by varying the amount of copper tungsten in the composite. For example, as the copper content gradually increases, the electrical and thermal conductivity and thermal expansion exhibit a tendency of being stronger. However, the density, electrical resistance, hardness and strength will be weakened when infiltrated with less amount of copper. Therefore, an appropriate chemical composition is the utmost importance when considering tungsten copper for specific application need.
Copper Tungsten Applications
The use of Tungsten copper (W-Cu) has noticeably increased in many fields and applications due to its distinctive mechanical and thermophysical properties. Tungsten copper materials exhibit high outstanding performance in the aspects of hardness, strength, conductivity, high temperature, and arc erosion resistance. It has been extensively used for the production of electrical contacts, heat sinkers and spreaders, die-sinking EDM electrodes and fuel injection nozzles.
Copper Tungsten Electrode
Tungsten copper is widely used in applications such as electrodes for sinker electrical discharge machining (EDM) and resistance welding. Copper tungsten EDM electrode is capable of machining hard refractory alloys such as titanium carbide and tungsten carbide. Copper tungsten can yield a better MMR (material removal rate) at a low level of TWR (tool wear rate) in comparison to copper, graphite, and other common materials electrodes. In addition, copper tungsten electrodes will become more desirable to utilize if the machining work requires high accuracy in dimension or an intricated geometry.
Therefore, copper tungsten is a relatively cost-saving and efficient option with respect to overcoming machining difficulties caused by a high melting temperature, and high thermal shock and abrasion resistance. Tungsten copper is also a preferred material in resistance welding electrodes. This is both because of the excellent conductivity of copper and the high melting point and the corrosion resistance of tungsten.
Copper Tungsten Heat Sink And Packaging Material
Copper tungsten is a promising material commonly utilized in integrated circuits and high-power microelectronic devices as heat sink and packaging materials. Tungsten copper alloy exhibited superior thermal conductivity and machinability. Most importantly, copper tungsten composites process a relatively low and tailorable coefficient of thermal expansion. In addition, the CTE range of copper tungsten composites overlapped with that of semiconductor materials like SiC and ceramics substrate materials like Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and Beryllium oxide (BeO). Therefore, WCu composite can be tailored to a close CTE to each material and efficiently prevent them from the damage of thermal stress fatigue.
Copper Tungsten Contact
Copper tungsten contact presents high closing and breaking performance in applications of high voltage circuit breakers, no matter what the interrupting medium is, e.g. an oil, vacuum, SF6 gas, or air environment. When the low melting point copper particles melt and evaporate from the tungsten skeleton, those particles absorb large amounts of heat generated by the electrical arc. Apart from the cooling effect of copper tungsten, the high melting point tungsten particles also take credit for the superiority of copper tungsten contact by offering an unmatchable resistance to arc-erosion and a high density.
Copper Tungsten Nozzle
Copper tungsten (Cu W) has also been proven to be one of the preferred materials for aviation and aerospace applications. Tungsten has a low thermal expansion and a high melting point. At the same time, the copper infiltrates contribute an exceptional transpiration cooling effect to the copper tungsten components when the working temperature is from 2000oC to 3300 oC. Therefore, the infiltrated tungsten provides superior resistance to thermal shock. It is critical to ensure the complex machined component maintains a stable condition and accurate dimension. These advantageous properties are why copper tungsten is widely used to make high-temperature resistance components such as the nozzles and throats of missiles and rockets.