Molybdenum is a multi-purpose, micro-nutrient, metallic mineral. It was called Molybdos (“lead”), by the ancient Greeks, who mistook its ores for the heavier element. Molybdenum doesn’t exist as a free metal on Earth, but rather in various oxidation states in minerals. It boasts the 6th highest melting point (2,617 °C) of all naturally occurring elements and easily forms stable carbides in alloys. About 80% of all molybdenum mined in the world is used in steel alloys and superalloys, and 14% of world production is used as pigments or catalysts in high-pressure, high-temperature applications.
Both molybdenum and tungsten are classified as “heavy metals,” though “moly” has a lower density, making it better suited to many specialized uses. Of all the elements, molybdenum has the lowest coefficient for thermal expansion. This, along with its high strength and thermal conductivity, make it the first choice for numerous industries and applications including specialty steelmaking; aerospace; touch-screen tech; electronic/electrical; and military & defense.
CHEMETAL USA customers know and appreciate molybdenum for its unique combination of strength, heat resistance, minimal thermal expansion, and corrosion resistance—the ideal mix for a wide variety industrial products and applications. Interestingly, “moly” also plays a critical role in the regulation of catalysts, enzymes, and gases in most higher life forms. Indeed, human beings could not exist without it, hence its inclusion among the so-called “essential elements.”
Working with molybdenum requires tremendous knowledge and acute quality control. CHEMETAL USA’s™ world-class metallurgists and engineers have expertise sintering and formation through pressing, rolling, and milling operations. CHEMETAL USA’s research and development of molybdenum products and processes never stops. An ISO certified molybdenum manufacturer, we offer an impressive range of products that meet consistently high standards conforming to ASTM B386 and ASTM B387. In addition, we’ve earned a strong reputation for fast lead time and large-volume contract capabilities. CONTACT US or download our PRODUCT CATALOG to learn more about our Molybdenum products.
Molybdenum Materials and Components
CHEMETAL USA produces all common forms of molybdenum and alloyed products, including plate; sheet; strip; foil; rod; and wire. These are isostatically pressed and sintered from pure metal powders into to compact billets through powder metallurgy. Additional deformations and heat treatments are applied, often followed by grinding, polishing, cleaning, or other surface treatments, until the finished product meets exacting, individual customer specifications.
Molybdenum Physical And Mechanical Properties
Molybdenum Physical Properties
Molybdenum Mechanical Properties
|Tensile Strength||150 (1035) ksi (Mpa)-RT|
|Melting Point||4760 °F|
|75 (515) ksi (Mpa)-500°C|
|Thermal Conductivity||0.35 cal/cm2/cm°C/sec||25 (175) ksi (Mpa)-1000°C|
|Specific Heat||0.061 cal/gm/°C||Elongation|
|Thermal Expansion||4.9 micro-in/°C x 10-6|
2.7 micro-in/°F x 10-6
|Electrical Resistivity||5.17 microohm-cm||Modules of Elasticity||45000 ksi|
|Recrystalization Temp.||1100 °C|
Molybdenum Applications And Properties
Vacuum Furnace Component
Molybdenum’s strength and chemical stability make it ideally suited for work in high-temperature, high-pressure conditions. It is easier and cheaper to fabricate than other refractory metals such as tantalum and tungsten. Moreover, its vapor pressure is well above the range of temperatures created in many vacuum furnaces—often lower than 1,500°C.
The vacuum or high temperature furnace parts made of molybdenum include but are not limited to the following types:
- Crucibles: Spun Mo crucible – Sintered Mo crucible – Plated worked Mo crucible – Forged Mo crucible – Welded Mo crucible
- Charge Carriers, Boats: Mo frame – Mo annealing boat – Mo tray – Mo carrier – Mo-La sintering tray
- Shieldings: Mo shielding – Mo-La shielding – W & Mo composite shielding
- Fastener: Molybdenum washer – Molybdenum nuts
- Silicon Furnaces: Mo flow guiding cylinder – Mo counterweight – Mo hook
Metal Hot Zone
Molybdenum is often used in heat resisting and insulating parts in all-metal hot zones of vacuum furnaces with temperatures up to 1500°C. Heat treatments for some materials demand extremely clean, high-pressure environments; molybdenum’s purity and stability effectively resist or eliminate carbon and oxygen contamination. Molybdenum metal hot zones include, but are not limited to:
- Heating Chamber
- Annealing Furnace
- Diffusion Welding Furnace
- Hot Zone for KY
In semiconductor manufacturing, ion implantation is done at high temperatures in erosive chambers filled with reactive gases and magnetic fields. In such situations, molybdenum alloy components resist reaction with dopant gases and plasma erosion. Molybdenum ensures the dopant atoms are precisely created and implanted onto the silicon wafer. Molybdenum ion-source components result in lower cleaning and maintenance costs.
CHEMETAL USA fabricates many molybdenum-based semiconductor and electronic components including, but not limited to:
- Ion Source Of Ion Implantation Equipment: Ion source – Face plate – End plate- Filament clamp – Filament – Repeller mod – Arc chamber
- Waveguide Components
- LED And Electronic Packaging Heat Sink: Molybdenum wafer substrate for LED chip – MoCu heat spreader – CMC laminate heat sink
Glass Melting Electrode
Molybdenum is an ideal metal for use in melting electrodes. Electrodes used in glass melting, for example, must withstand aggressive, high-temperature processing environments. Molybdenum electrodes’ slow erosion rate and high creep resistance in molten glass ensure negligible damage from chemical and dimensional instability. In addition, molybdenum’s high electrical conductivity ensures high energy input and productivity when current passes through the electrodes.
Molybdenum Thin Film
Molybdenum thin film is a superior component of TFT-LCD screens, solar cells and panels, touch panel displays and related technologies, due to its low coefficient of thermal expansion, high chemical and thermal stability, and excellent electrical conductivity.
For example, Molybdenum thin films are used to make gate, drain and source electrodes of thin film transistors. They produce a high conversion rate in solar power. Molybdenum foil also exhibits excellent thermal stability, heat resistance and radiation absorption capacity, making it ideally suited as a radiation shield and a core component of a collimator in CT equipment. Moreover, it can be used to make boats for vaporization deposition.
- High Density: 10.3 g/cm³
- High Melting Point: 2625°C (4760 °F)
- Low Vapor Pressure
- High Tensile Strength
- Low Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
- Low Electrical Resistivity
- Good Machinability
- High Absorption Capacity
- High Elastic Modulus
- Furnace Components
- Semiconductor Base Plates
- Ion Implantation Cathodes And Anodes
- Sintering And Annealing Boats And Charge Carriers
- Radiation Shielding, Sputtering Targets and Electrodes
- Components for Electron Tubes