Effects of Annealing on the Structure and Properties of Cold-Rolled Molybdenum Sheets

Molybdenum, a refractory metal, finds widespread applications in high-temperature environments due to its excellent thermal and mechanical properties. Cold rolling is a common processing method for obtaining molybdenum sheets with desired dimensions and mechanical strengths. However, cold rolling often leads to the formation of internal stresses and microstructural changes, necessitating post-processing annealing to optimize the material’s properties.

Annealing Process and Its Importance

Annealing is a heat treatment process that involves heating the material to a temperature below its melting point, holding it at that temperature for a specific duration, and then cooling it slowly. This process aims to relieve internal stresses, recover the microstructure, and enhance the material’s ductility and toughness. For cold-rolled molybdenum thin sheets, annealing is crucial in removing the residual stresses introduced during the rolling process, which can affect the sheet’s performance in high-temperature applications.

Effects of Annealing on Microstructure

During annealing, the molybdenum thin sheets undergo significant microstructural changes. The cold-worked microstructure, characterized by elongated grains and high internal stresses, transforms into a more relaxed and equiaxed grain structure. This transformation occurs as the atoms within the material migrate and rearrange, relieving the internal stresses and promoting grain growth. The extent of grain growth depends on the annealing temperature and duration, with higher temperatures and longer durations leading to larger grains.

Effects of Annealing on Mechanical Properties

The relaxation of internal stresses and the microstructural changes during annealing significantly impact the mechanical properties of molybdenum thin sheets. The ductility and toughness of the material increase, making it more resistant to fracture and more suitable for high-temperature applications. Additionally, the material’s hardness and yield strength may decrease slightly due to the grain growth and stress relief. However, the overall balance of mechanical properties achieved through annealing often outweighs these minor losses.


Annealing is a crucial post-processing step for cold-rolled molybdenum thin sheets. It effectively removes internal stresses, recovers the microstructure, and enhances the material’s ductility and toughness. By optimizing the annealing temperature and duration, it is possible to achieve a balance of mechanical properties that meets the specific requirements of high-temperature applications. Future research could explore the use of advanced annealing techniques, such as vacuum annealing or controlled atmosphere annealing, to further enhance the properties of cold-rolled molybdenum sheets.